Assessment Task 1:

 Questions & Answers

1. According to the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, what are the definitions of the following terms:

· Contaminant is a biological, chemical or other foreign substances that interfere with food safety and suitability.

· Contamination is the introduction or appearance of contaminant(s)  in food

· Potentially hazardous foods, or temperature control for safety foods, have been stored at a given temperature to reduce the spread of pathogenic microorganisms that may be found in food. The process prevents toxins formation in food.

2. Outline three aspects of guidance the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code provides to employees in relation to hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) methods for controlling food safety.

Hazard analysis and the identification of related control measures is required to detect the hazard and recognition of its source

The process of hazard analysis should involve a brainstorming session to review ingredients applied, activities involved in the process, the type of equipment applied, storage, and distribution channels

Hazard evaluation should involve the assessment of the severity of potential hazards, with a focus on its likelihood of occurrence, seriousness, and consequences.

3. Identify two critical control points in any of a restaurant’s food handling processes where hazards must be controlled.

Testing for chemical residue in ingredients

Testing the final product for metal contaminants

4. Provide an example of how each of the following different types of food contamination can impact food during storage or service. In your response provide a possible reason on how the contamination may occur.

· Microbiological contamination happens when infectious materials such as fungi, virus, and bacteria like campylobacter is accidentally introduced into the food. Campylobacter results from undercooking of chicken.

· chemical contamination happens when heavy metals, mycotoxins, and organic pollutants enter the food chain. One source is use of contaminated water in the food production process. Water contamination happens when waste from factories and other toxins from landfills reach water sources.

· physical contamination happens when objects (contaminants) such as stalks of plants, plastic, metal, or hair happen to be inside food. While plant stalks may have been included as a natural ingredient, hair contaminates food if the chef fails to wear a cap. Lack of ingredient checks may also leave plastics and metals inside the food.

5. Outline how you would use bacterial swabs and counts to monitor food safety.

Using bacterial swabs and counts on the food preparation environment helps owners of food business and regulators about the cleanliness of the food processing area

6. Outline two factors to consider when ordering and receiving food ingredient supplies. Your response must address ordering and receiving supplies.

When ordering:

· check the ingredients’ composition and quality to find out if they meet the applicable food production policies.

· Assess your suppliers to know their food safety practices, and check the appropriateness of such practices for the food production process

When receiving:

· Ensure that the delivery vehicle is clean, to avoid cross-contamination. Also ensure the vehicle temperature is appropriate for the type of ingredients

· Immediately the ingredients are received, test for metals and other foreign objects.

7. Outline 3 environmental conditions for storing fruit and vegetable products and dishes to optimise shelf life.

Temperature should range between 400C and 600C. Freezing temperatures are not appropriate for storage

Moisture should be removed when storing food. For long-term storage, moisture needs to be 10% or less

Light may degrade food value. Food storage is best done in dark areas.

8. Outline two employee and two employer Occupational Health and Safety responsibilities in relation to storing stock.


· Follow the legal work safety and health rules established by the employer and take the necessary protective measures at the jobsite

· Report hazards to the employer and participate in hazard analysis


· Provide the training and skills to enable employees perform their tasks in safe and healthy way

· Set the work safety practices and ensure that they are followed by employees

9. Provide one advantage of using a “bin card’ and ‘imprest’ stock control systems. A different response must be provided for each.

Bin card: By allowing recording of every transaction on quantity form, this method allows for monitoring of the overall inventory process

Imprest stock control system enhances accountability, minimises theft, and reduces expenditure as it is performed regularly.

10. Describe the main features of an integrated point-of-sale stock control system.

An integrated point-of-sale stock control system utilises a central planning database, Enterprise Resource planning system, to manage customer and stock information and all the related details. Point-of-sale contains all the aspects it requires to handle bookkeeping, financial transactions, and inventory management. When using the point-of-sale stock control system, therefore, the user yield the benefits of a complicated cash register, in what is referred to as back-office system.

11. Provide a benefit of a ledger stock control system.

Stock ledger is mainly applied for merchandising reporting to measure amount of inventory and profitability of merchandise. Stock ledger records financial processes such as buying, selling, and price changes and transfers.

12. Outline a method for quarantining the storage of the following items that are likely to be the source of contamination of food:

· Chemicals: Label the chemicals and store in an area or room, separate from that of food. Detergents, bleach, metals, and toxins should be kept in a room far from the food store.

· Clothing: Wear clean protective clothes (aprons) and store extra clothing with other personal items far from the areas where food storage and preparation takes place.

· personal belongings : use appropriate equipment to inspect  personal belongings for hazardous materials, then dispose or store in a secluded area away from food store and food handling areas.

13. Outline an example of a food or beverage item that may present the following signs of contamination.

· degradation of flavour and texture  Cooked meat

· degradation of aroma and colour  Soft drinks

· enzymic browning  Fruits like apples

· drying and hardening  Fruits and vegetables

· crystallisation Chocolate milk

· infestation of animal and pest waste vegetables

· mould bread

· exposed packaged food through damaged packaging  biscuits

· odour meat, fruits and vegetables

· reduced size and weight drying vegetables

14. Outline three possible aspects of food safety programs relating to the storage and service of perishable food items. Your response must address storage and service at least once each.

Clean fruits and rinse under running water, before service to eliminate germs and dirt.

Separate raw seafood, poultry and eggs from cooked food during storage to prevent contamination.

Cook food to the recommended temperature to kill germs that could make people ill, then allow it to cool before storage.

15. Provide a summary of what is meant by the term ‘temperature danger zone and the two-hour and four-hour rule’.

Temperature danger zone ranges from 40 °F to 140 °F, and is the time when bacteria growth rate is most rapid.

The two-hour and four-hour rule states that food kept at a temperature ranging between 50C and 600C may be used or sold but cannot be returned into the fridge 

16. Outline how to use one type of pest control equipment/ material to ensure food safety during storage.

Use pest-proof storage containers such as hard plastic bins with lids that fit tightly. Mice cannot chew these and the bins also keep bugs out. Ensure you replace the cracked and broken bins.  

17. Outline two methods for identifying contaminated perishable fresh food. For each method identify an action that should be taken upon identification.

Check for discolouring and bad smell in beef, poultry, and seafood. Pick the contaminated meat using cloves and place in a plastic bag then place in the garbage.

Check fruits for moulds or tenderness and mushy consistency. Place the contaminated fruits inside the garbage can then sanitise the kitchen areas that came in contact with the spoilt fruits.  

18. Outline a method for identifying food that is intended to be:

· frozen but has thawed: check for room temperature. If the frozen food reaches room temperature, it is ready for use

· chilled but has reached a dangerous temperature zone: rapid growth of bacteria

19. Outline how cross contamination can originate from food equipment or utensils.

Equipment or utensils that were not washed properly and sanitised after every incident can cause cross contamination. Can openers, food preparation equipment, and slicers easily cause cross contamination.

20. Explain two possible ramifications to employees who fail to observe safe food handling legislation, policies and procedures when undertaking their job role tasks.

An increased rate of food poisoning. Food poisoning happens when employees fail to follow the regulations for food inspection, thus, serving contaminated food to one or more customers. Food poisoning, at its worst, may result in disease outbreak.

Prosecution of the employee. If hazard analysis reveal that food poisoning, for instance, resulted from employee negligence, that employee may face prosecution.

21. Explain two possible ramifications to employers who fail to ensure their business operates in compliance with Occupational Health and Safety legislation relevant to processing and storing food.

Penalties for failure to comply with Occupational Health and Safety regulations. In less severe cases, penalties may involve payment of fines. However, the employer may face imprisonment if the lack of compliance results in a severe incident.

The employer is held liable if non-compliance causes injuries or casualties. If the business operator does not introduce work safety and health regulations, the mistakes that employees make will be blamed on their employer. The employer may have to pay hospitalisation bills for every injured worker or customer.

Assessment Task 2

Questions and Answers 

1. List two sources of Occupational Health & Safety specialist advice for using information technology devices in the workplace.

· Newspaper articles and books on WHS Act regulations

· Educational videos explaining the WHS Act regulations

2. Outline three aspects of Occupational Health & Safety best practice guidance that applies to using information technology devices in the workplace.

Occupational safety: covers safety of computers, electricity use, safety inspections, and accident investigations

Occupational health: is concerned with effect of information technology devices usage on health. Mainly the sitting posture when using computers, and proper lighting.

Industrial hygiene: relates to disposal of old or damaged IT devices. Computers, for instance, have heavy metals (like lead) that pollute soil and may even get to ground water if the parts are left in landfills.

3. Outline five steps for setting up your chair when using a workplace PC in accordance with Workplace Health and Safety guidelines.

Select a chair with lumbar support so the back receives adequate support and the spine retains its natural curvature. This prevents leaning forward and slouching that cause poor posture and back pain.

When seated, the hips should be pushed to the farthest back of the chair to maintain upright posture

Height of the chair should be adjusted until the feet rest flat on the floor. The knees should be same level as hips or a little lower

Set the back of the chair until the upper and lower back get the required support. Inflatable pillows and cushions may help to achieve this.

Adjust the armrest to keep shoulders on the same level. Armrests may be removed, if necessary. 

4. Access a self-help site that provides guidance on how to address two PC security issues.  In your own words summarise the PC safety guidance on how to address each of the two safety issues.

Computer viruses: these can alter how a computer runs. The best solution is to purchase an up-to-date antivirus software, to assess free software you download, shared files, and emails sent by unknown users.

Spyware threats: comprise programs that monitor a person’s online activity capture personal information or install programs without the user’s knowledge. Reading the terms and conditions in various sites and installing an internet security solution are effective ways of addressing this problem.

5. Outline two security issues that may be encountered when using computer applications in the workplace.  

Unauthorised access to and stealing of customers’ identities. This damages the reputation of the concerned organisation.

Compromised user accounts. It comes with huge expenses as the company attempts to fix the issues and consider measures for preventing future incidents.

6. Outline how you could address one security problem that may be encountered when using computer applications in the workplace.

To address customers’ identity theft, the following steps are necessary:

Encourage customers to use strong passwords for their accounts. This means avoiding details close to their identities, and using longer passwords

Installing antivirus software to prevent hackers from accessing the company’s computer system, to steal the stored customer details

7. Outline three recommended steps for inclusion in a hotel security procedure for ensuring the safety of cash collected from customers.

Areas allocated for cash deposit preparations should be restricted to unauthorised personnel

Use fire-proof safe to store the collected cash. The safe should be locked at all times and stored in a safe area

Keep the collected cash at reasonable minimum and deposit the excess to a bank 

8. Provide two examples of how food wastage impacts a commercial catering organisation.  

Food wastage reduces profitability of the catering organisations. A catering organisation spends money on growing of food and harvesting, or transportation, packaging, and distribution. The resources utilised in these processes are wasted if food wastage occurs.

Secondly, food wastage makes a commercial catering company a polluter. The food wastes in landfills produce methane gas when they begin to rot, and this gas negatively impacts the ozone layer and the environment at large.

9. Outline three recommended steps for inclusion to a restaurant’s security procedure for ensuring document, equipment and key security. Your response must address documents, keys and equipment at least once each.

Document security: Teach the employees best document handling practices, and store documents with private information off-site.

Equipment: Minimise risks associated with equipment use, and ensure that employees safely use computers and laptops.

Key: store key in a secure environment. Appliances for storing the key should remain under the complete control of the security team.

10. Outline three Occupational Health and Safety guidance inclusions for the induction and training for canteen customer service staff.

Clear definition of roles and responsibilities. The explanation should cover both the corporate and legal roles and responsibilities

Emergency procedures. The canteen customer service staff should learn about first aid, where to find first aid kits, and how to conduct evacuation

Training should cover communication skills. As a customer service staff, the skills will ensure effective relation with customers and result in positive customer experience

11. Outline an example of one safe food handling practice that can be implemented to ensure the safety of each of the following hospitality customer groups. Provide a reason why the practice may help ensure their safety. Provide a different safe food handling practice for each customer group.

· children or babies :  Avoid serving raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and fish, to minimise the risk of food poisoning.

· pregnant women : Cook the seafood properly. Some raw seafood may contain parasites and bacteria like Listeria, which have the potential to make the pregnant women ill and even harm the baby.

· aged persons: Wash hands and cooking area frequently to kill bacteria. Also, cook food to the right temperature to kill the illness-causing bacteria. 

· people with immune deficiencies or allergies :  Identify the allergies and intolerances of the people being served, to avoid exposure to foods to which they are allergic.

· unwell persons : Go for soft foods like mashed bananas, as they may have trouble chewing. Again, serving probiotic yogurt is great as it helps with restoration of gut and increases immune health

12. Outline one benefit gained by a restaurant from implementing two different methods for identifying food safety hazards. Provide an outline of each method and benefit gained in your responses.

Reviewing customer complaints: helps to identify hazard type and source, as well as the involvement of the food business in food recalls and withdrawals

Brainstorming with the team: Having conversation with employees who have experience working in food industry is important for identification of risk factors and sources of hazards.

13. Outline a reason why group risk assessment mechanisms are commonly used by commercial cookery/ hospitality organisations.

It ensures compliance with Governance and Corporate Governance regulations by ensuring that policies, guidelines, and procedures for maintaining sound risk management are implemented.

14. Provide a recommended frequency for undertaking temperature checks on fresh fish (unfrozen) during storage.

Appropriate temperature for storing fresh fish is 40°F or below.

15. List two sources of local government Occupational Health & Safety specialist advice for food handling in the workplace.

Government Acts or regulations and

Publications Employer or industry associations

16. Identify the name of one Commonwealth Act/ piece of legislation that applies to food safety in Australia.

The Food Act 1984

17. Identify the name of one State/ Territory Act/ piece of legislation where you live that applies to food safety.

The Food Standards Australia New Zealand Act 1991

18. Outline the purpose of the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code.

To provide food business in Australia the legal requirements for food labelling, composition, safety, management, as well as production and processing.

19. Identify the name of a State/ Territory body who are responsible for enforcing the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code where you live. Outline two of their roles.

Australian state and territory governments enforce the Australia New Zealand Food Standards


They make laws for the whole of Australia regarding international and Australian trade and commerce, and check business compliance with the laws

They also ensure that the established laws provide Australians the necessary services before implementing them