Section 1: Philosophy of Discipline and Management

 This Section presents:

· Beliefs about Classroom Management and Discipline

· Goals of Discipline and Management System

· Approach to Discipline is aligned with one or more of the models discussed in class.

1.1 Beliefs about Classroom Management and Discipline

Proper classroom management by teachers is essential in ensuring smooth flow of learning processes. Teachers play the key role of determining students’ classroom behavior, and must particularly motivate students to adopt the positive behavior for the purpose of improving academic outcome (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003). Disciplined students are more likely to perform better in class than those in classrooms where discipline is neglected. Ronald Morrish’s model of classroom management and discipline explains that teachers shape students behavior when they teach the code of conduct.  Moreover, the model reveals that proper behavior encourages cooperation among students when learning and positively impacts academics. More effective teachers are often prepared to handle their students’ behaviors and learning outcomes than less effective teachers (Marzano et al, 2003). Preparedness is therefore, important in helping teachers to manage their classes and students correctly and yield positive learning outcomes. When evaluating students, a teacher must not be biased because each student is important to the society and is worth investing in. The educators must ensure to monitor and record behavior of all students. Attention must therefore be paid to all the students in a classroom (Bear, 2008).

1.2 Goal of my own management and discipline system

The main objective of the management and discipline system is to eliminate opportunities for occurrence of behavioral problems in students. The system achieves this through approaches that ensure that the teachers control lessons effectively. The system focuses more on detection, recognition and resolution of bad behavior among students. Its effectiveness is measured in the ability to identify problems with the students at early stages so that correction is offered on a timely schedule to avoid negative implications it could bring onto the learning process. The model by Curwin and Mendler enables students to access guidelines and rules for learning as well as consequences for violating rules. This therefore assists educators in the process of correcting indiscipline cases among students (Bear, 2008).

1.3 Approach to Discipline is aligned with one or more of the models

Compare and Contrast Chart



Overall Goal or


Beliefs about


Teacher’s Role

in the Classroom

The Glasser’s Control model

To enable students to make informed decisions and choices through nurturing of a sense of ownership and belonging.

Students are able to behave appropriately without being supervised by adults, especially teachers.

Students should be rewarded or punished reasonably based on the severity of good or bad behavior.

There should be no acceptance or justification for bad behavior.

To help students understand how to make better decisions and choices through illustrations that show how rewards are offered for proper conduct.  

Organizing classroom meetings that are aimed at promoting proper and correct behavior.

Punishing or rewarding students for bad or good behavior, respectively.

The Fred Jones model






To enable teachers heighten effectiveness of their teaching strategies with regards to student motivation and behavior change.

A lot of class time is wasted when addressing bad behavior among students, especially when this is done during learning sessions.

Good behavior among students is demonstrated through cooperation and concern for others students and their teachers.

Proper body language from the teacher eliminates bad behavior during learning sessions and reduces wastage of class time.

To raise self-esteem in students and help them to practice good behavior.

To teach students about proper behavior and enlighten them on the differences between good and bad.


The Curwin and Mendler model.






To enable students to behave as per the learning principles and rules because of clearly defined learning procedures and guidelines.

Upholding dignity ensures students keep up good behavior in class because dignity dictates discipline.

Responsibility, student coordination and cooperation, together with decision making and respect for teachers and other students encourages proper behavior in class.

To establish rules and guidelines for learning and assist students in mastering the procedures.

To exercise consequences on students as determined by the nature of conduct, which may include punishment or rewards.

Ronald Morrish’s model.






To enable students to develop respect for the authority and to enable them differentiate what is right from what is wrong.

For students to be respected members of the society they must be taught proper way of conducting themselves and how to deal with adults.

Good behavior is measured in the ability to cooperate and show concern for others.

To teach students to choose appropriate behavior and how to distinguish right from wrong.

To teach students to respect the authority and all adults taking care of them such as teachers and other school staff.


Section 2: Preventive Measures

This Section contains:

  • Structuring the Classroom Space (map with rationale)
  • Daily Schedule, Routines, and Procedures
  • Rules or Norms of Behavior (in addition to how these will be introduced)
  • Other

2.1 Structuring the Classroom Space

In a classroom, positive behavior can be encouraged through appropriate physical arrangement of furniture and other resources. The best classroom arrangement is one that enables both the students and the teacher to see each other clearly.

The design enables all students to see the displays on the bulleting board at the back such as behavioral expectations, agenda and strategy presentations, and the information written on the white board in front of the class. Moreover, the structure encourages free movement of students and it has workspace. The sink enables students to practice hygiene expectations such as washing hands after touching dirty surfaces. Martel (2009) states that proper organization of classroom resources can reduce frustrations, misunderstandings, and as a result contribute to maximum use of instructional time.

Structure the classroom space sets aside free space where students can move about purposefully without congestion. This reduces anxiety, encourages attentiveness, and makes students comfortable hence are able to learn better. This especially helps students often feel discomfort if subjected to longer sitting durations, and thus require frequent breaks to stay focused. In summary, I believe the best classroom arrangement enables: free movement of teachers and students, is appropriate for both individual and group activities, allows teachers to have direct contact with all students in the teaching process, eliminates opportunities for distractions, allows easy access to learning materials, and generally contributes to positive attitude towards learning.

2.2 Daily Schedule, Routines, and Procedures

Schedules represent the main activities to be performed on daily basis, while routines are the strategies used to fulfill the activities. Routines, procedures and schedules are necessary because in creating a flexible pace among the many activities that are undertaken per day. Below is an example of an Elementary School schedule.

Daily Schedule


· Welcome

· Checking Homework

· Personal Reading


· Reading, Writing and Instruction in Language Arts


Snack Break



Learning Centers

· Reading, Writing, and Language Arts Exercises

· Mathematics

· Art


· Monday - Music.

· Tuesday - PE

· Wednesday - Art

· Thursday - PE

· Friday - Music


Lunch Break


· Monday - Math Homework Check-In

· Tuesday - Math Instruction

· Wednesday - Library

· Thursday - Math Instruction

· Friday - Math Instruction


Short Break




· Social Studies

· Science

Teachers are charged with the task of creating routines and procedures that make transition easier. When setting routines and schedules, teachers are advised to check out for number of activities to be performed, the level of alertness in children, and should ensure a balance in activities. Schedules, routines and procedures have several contributions including: shaping a child’s emotional, cognitive and social qualities; enhance understanding of behavioral expectations; give a sense of security to the students; and raises the level of student engagement.

A study conducted by Seiberlich (2016) reported that schedules, procedures and routines contributed to improved behavior in students during transition. In fact, the students in the study were observed to have developed masterly of the sequence of daily events. This had been enabled by consistent routines. Even though teachers play major role in modeling expectations, students should be informed about the classroom behavioral expectations. Planning for the daily routines is a task that requires careful thinking where the concerned teacher may be required to consult colleagues. The best approach that also encourages student involvement, however, is to discuss the importance of the routines with them. It is even better if the students are invited to participate in creating the procedures because the students will develop a sense of ownership towards the procedures and will become more collaborative.

2.3 Rules or Norms of Behavior (in addition to how these will be introduced)

Norms are the popular ways of relating within a classroom setting while rules comprise of a list of desired behaviors in a classroom. Norms are important in that they contribute to effectiveness of learning by ensuring maximization of the students’ learning time. There are four major steps in creating classroom norms and rules: clear statement of expectations; implementation of the desirable rules and procedures; consistent monitoring and support of the created norms; and regular evaluation of the norms.

According to Evertson, Poole, & the IRIS Center (2003), establishment and maintenance of norms encourage effective learning environment characterized by proper discipline so that teachers spend teaching time appropriately. Moreover, rules and norms support the leaning process through responsible interactions that express concern and respect for others. School-wide norms can also be made effective if programs for establishment concentrate on supportive relations among students.

Proper establishment of norms requires teachers to plan for the academic and social expectations before the start of the school year. This especially addresses issues such as the expected classroom starting time, preparations needed for the class, selection of channels for communicating class expectations to the students, and establishment of expected learning outcomes.

Implementation of norms and rules

The first step in implementation of norms is to begin a discussion concerning the classroom rules on the first school day by explaining to the students the purpose and importance of the rules and procedures that they are expected to follow. The rules are better understood if taught through visual displays like the one below, and through demonstrations that include role-play.

The teacher has to continually create, teach, exercise, and support the newly introduced procedures to ensure effectiveness of classroom norms. Moreover, consistent monitoring and response to student behavior towards the developed rules and procedures is important.

2.4 Other

The process of structuring classroom space, establishment of routines, as well as development and implementation of rules and norms should be aligned with the learning objectives for the concerned class. The classroom learning goals may depend on the subject being taught, grade level, and group features but should generally be easy for the students to understand and accomplish. In addition, the consequences of violations of the rules should also be stated clearly. The rules should be retaught if there is need for such. And, above all, the teacher’s interaction with the students should encourage support for the established rules.

Section 3: Supportive and Corrective Measures

This Section Contains:

  • First Steps - redirecting and warning
  • Consequences
  • Incentives
  • Student Accountability
3.1 First Steps - redirecting and warning

Student misbehaviors range from harassing classmates, incomplete homework, verbal insults, and rudeness to both teachers and other students. Teachers are usually unable to condone such behaviors. The misconducts provoke stress and lead to time wastage (Leung & Ho, 2001). This necessitates the establishment of procedures for correction of such behaviors especially because of the difference in the nature of the misconducts.  These are some of the areas in which training is required for teachers to possess for effective classroom management. Redirecting behavior is process in which the teacher distracts a student’s concentration on a wrong activity and makes the student to focus on some beneficial procedures. Apart from redirecting, the teacher can use verbal warnings or non-verbal gestures such as nodding of the head, or any other nonverbal gesture that makes sense to the student.

3.2 Consequences

A reminder of the misconducts should be written and displayed on the bulleting board. 

The behavioral standards are better respected by students if the consequences for undesired actions are set at class level. A behavior chart should then be drawn and displayed at a point where students can easily see, to constantly remind them of the dos and don’ts of the classroom environment. The representations and displays are visual reminders of the expected classroom behavior. To some of the misbehaviors identified in the chart, possible consequences should include: verbal warning, second warning and re-teaching of the classroom rules, third warning and a meeting with the teacher, fourth warning and parents’ involvement on the matter, and ,lastly, inform the principal.

3.3 Incentives

It is quite predictable that students will automatically know they are doing the right thing when the teacher no longer punishes them, meaning they are adhering to routines and rules as required. However, I believe that students can be motivated if other physical rewards and verbal gestures that express satisfaction with their behaviors are incorporated. At elementary level, students can be more confortable following rules if they will receive rewards such as verbal praise, snacks treat, academic trip, and warm gestures like a smile, when things are alright.

3.4 Student Accountability

Since involving students in setting of procedures encourages their collaboration in enforcing the same, I believe that the most effective channel for behavior management within the classroom needs to be acceptable to the students. Students need teaching on how to be accountable for their behavior. Involving student in discussing misconducts, incentives, and consequences better enhances their understanding of the potential harm that their behavior brings on others. A sense of ownership also results from student involvement in establishment of rules and makes implementation easier (Seiberlich, 2016) because students believe they have a role to play in ensuring the rules are respected in class.

Section 4: Working Effectively with Diverse Students and Families

This Section Presents:

  • Home-School Communication Philosophy and Plan
  • Cultural Considerations with Discipline
  • Legal Issues regarding Students with Special Needs

4.1 Homes-School Communication Philosophy and Plan

Development of effective communication channels between the school and families from where the students come enhances the children’s performance because the teachers collaborate with parents in ensuring the children’s wellbeing. Partnership with the school also built trust among parents and make easy procedures especially when disciplinary action is required. Zhou (2014) states that contribution from family and the community is important for improved academic performance in students. I also share in the belief that parental involvement is important for their children’s success.

I believe the school can encourage communication with parents first understanding the perceptions of teachers about the parents, sending invitations to parents so they talk to teachers about goals the students should achieve, holding conferences to allow parents speak about their children and holding frequent teacher-parent meetings to discuss children’s performance at individual level.

4.2 Cultural Considerations with Discipline

Understanding of culture of the community whose children are taught at school is important for the school staff, especially teachers. Students, For example, may possess a set of behaviors that improves their learning experience as per their culture but the teacher may find such actions intolerable.  Taking the example of the United States, Purdie (2012) explains the possibility that a teacher may deal with a community with demographical diversity.

The subcultures such as the white, African America, Asian, Hispanic, among others, have their own religious beliefs and socioeconomic status that define their cultures. A teacher at a local school with this type of demographical diversity has to understand the behaviors and rituals of the people because these affect the manner in which the students communicate, interpret body language, and how they want to be taught. In my opinion, training in cultural sensitivity and multicultural education are important in understanding the relationship between culture, parental involvement, and student’s academic achievement.

4.3 Legal Issues Regarding Students with Special Needs

Teachers need familiarity with in order to handle issues with the children they teach in a proper way. Educators dealing with students with special needs have to particularly understand the legislations regarding this group of children so that they are always prepared to address any issues that have commonly been witnessed in other cases. One of the very important laws for teachers handling students with special needs is the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, which eliminated discriminative behavior by schools that overlooked the handicapped students by demanding equally free and public education for all children (Lechtenberger, 2015).  

Moreover, the Act requires that teachers should take active role in creating important legal document (IEP) to demonstrate clear understanding of the child’s needs, the services that the school should provide to meet the needs, and how the impact of such services will be examined. The teacher is as well required to take part in identification of interventions for positive behaviors along with strategizing programs to make work easier for school staff that is required to respond to the needs of the child. Educators also need to familiarize with two other laws: Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which prohibits discrimination due to a disability; and Master Plan for Special Education (MPSE) by California State in 1980, which demands that students with disability take part in normal education classes. These two legislations are opposed to punishment for misbehaviors influenced by the disability of the students. The correct procedure must therefore be followed when there is need to discipline children with special needs.