The thrust of this post is to provide a perspective on culture and language. The study has shown how culture and language are interrelated and the conflict which is likely to emanate when a new language is introduced in a different cultural context. Also, the post discusses how a foreign language threatens the local culture as it can cause the erosion of local cultural heritage. The perspective on culture, language, and the possibility of conflict has been provided by drawing insights from the teaching of the English language in Kuwait. The case study is based on a particular incident that took place at Um Al Hayman School.

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English language is among the prominent languages spoken around the globe. Similarly, the English language has been gradually spreading throughout the Persian Gulf region. This comprises countries such as Kuwait. The spread and usage of the English language in the Persian Gulf can be traced to the nineteenth century when the British began to arrive in the region (Charise, 2007). Eventually, the region was put under the British protectorate as the interests expanded to include political control which ushered in colonialism.


British English had to be one of the languages used to transact daily business. The nomadic Bedouin tribes, sparsely populated and spread in the entire region including Kuwait, were predominantly Arabic speakers. The Arabic language is part of their Islamic culture. Arabic language is also important in the spread of Islam religion as members of the Bedouin are Sunni Muslims. Despite their preference for the Arabic language, the Bedouin had to learn how to communicate with their colonial masters, leading to the establishment of English as a lingua franca in the region.


Between 1951 and 1971, countries in the Persian Gulf attained their independence, leading toward to the dissolution of the British protectorates (Charise, 2007). However, the English language had begun to take root in the region as it was used to instruct students in public schools that had been established within the region. The study indicates that attitudes toward the English language were generally positive (Charise, 2007). Sociolinguistic scholars have argued that this was quite unusual because normally in similar circumstances there is total resentment towards anything associated with a former colonial master due to a highly charged assertion for independence. But sociolinguistic studies have established that the English language was perceived as a facilitator of nation-building rather than a barrier (Weber, 2011; Charise, 2007)

Arabic is the official language of Kuwait. However, there are other languages that are spoken in the country such as Farsi, Pashto, and Urdu. But due to the massive exploitation of petroleum resources in the country, there are multinational corporations and foreign workers which bring in the need for the English language hence promoting multilingualism in the country. Despite the positive attitude towards English, the 9/11 attack in the U.S. and its aftermath led to a significant attitude change towards English and English Language Teaching (ELT) and how it is applied within Islamic contexts (Charise, 2007).


Therefore, this research paper seeks to explore challenges accompanied by the teaching of the English language amongst the Sunni conservatives of the tribe of Bedouin students at Um Al Hyman School who consider the language as a direct threat to their culture and religion. The insights drawn from the students’ attitudes toward the English language will be assessed using relevant literature to provide an amicable solution to the problem. 

Language and Culture

Language and Culture are closely interlinked concepts in the study of bilingualism. Language refers to a system or mode of communication used by human beings, either in the form of signs, sounds, writings, or the use of words that are normally structured and conveyed in a particular manner that is widely accepted by a particular society (Nippold, 2016). used to denote customs, ideas, and On the other hand, culture is a term that is used to denote customs, ideas, and any other social characteristics and behaviors of people in a particular society (Heine, 2015). Therefore, people in a particular social setting use language to interact while culture is the essential ingredient that strengthens relationships among individuals in society by holding together the social fabric. 


It is also important to note that language is used to pass culture from one generation to another hence depicting the dependent relationship between the two concepts. Similarly, from the sociolinguistic point of view, the concepts are intricately related. According to (Guessabi 2011), the meanings ascribed to particular aspects of a given society by culture are presented using language. This makes language an integral part of a culture. Language cannot be understood in the absence of culture since it is impossible to separate the two concepts (Mahadi, 2012). Therefore, culture and language are studied in light of each other. 


Individuals use the language acquired through the possession of a particular culture to express their thoughts, experiences, emotions, desires, and fears among other things that they might need to express (Bayyurt, 2013). Language is also critical in promoting social interactions between individuals as language is used to understand each other. It comprises verbal cues such as spoken words and non-verbal cues such as signs and facial expressions. The choice of these communication cues is influenced by the prevailing social contexts dictated by culture. Therefore, the communication process is affected by cultural considerations that have to take precedence in any social setting as an individual is compelled to conform to the tenets of a particular culture. 


The close interrelationship between language and culture makes it impossible to draw a clear distinction between the concepts. According to Brock-Utne (2005), this has led to unending debates with the arguments being based on whether language is culture or culture is language, while others attempt to draw differences between the two concepts. All these difficulties indicate that the two concepts are inseparable. However, other scholars have argued that language is one of the aspects of a particular culture with other aspects including; art, rituals, customs, lifestyles, art, and architecture (Sharifian, 2017)


Anthropologists have defined culture as society’s shared beliefs, values, traditions, ideas, and behavior. Therefore, this makes culture a phenomenon that is in a static form and that is passed from one generation to another (Bates & Plog, 1991). changing in response to changes On the other hand, sociolinguists hold that culture is a dynamic phenomenon that keeps on changing in response to changes taking place within a particular social sphere (Baker, 2009; Corbett, 2003). 

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Ethnographic Description of A Class at Um Al Hayman

The Um Al Hayman Center Elementary Middle and High School is a learning institution in Kuwait that is found in a town known as Sabah Al-Salem. The location of this town is under the Mubarak Al-Kabeer Governorate. Sabah Al-Salem shares its boundaries with Mishref in the North, Sabhan in the West, Adan in the south, and Messila located in the East and Southeast. Sabha Al-Salem is a suburban with a total population of 78, 872. Also, the A’takmul International School is found in this location (Baby, et al. 2016)


Um Al Hayman School comprises both elementary and high school students. The school reflects the education levels in Kuwait from nursery to secondary education. According to the educational policy of Kuwait, education usually begins when a child attains the age of six years (Al-Nakib, 2015). Education is compulsory with students being required to attend either a public school or any of the private schools which are mainly sponsored by foreign investors as required of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In line with Kuwait’s constitution, there is gender segregation at Um Al Hayman which often starts at the primary level. Also, it is important to note that Kuwait has attained gender parity for students being enrolled at the primary level (Chahine, 2015)


After the primary level, students are allowed to join the intermediate level that goes up to grade 9 where they spend 4 years before proceeding to high school which takes 3 years to complete. Upon completion of the high school, students can either join higher learning institutions depending on their qualifications or they can opt to join the available technical and vocational institutions. Kuwait’s high school education system has been streamlined into a single system. Therefore Kuwait’s education system runs on a 5-4-3 year’s basis. Research indicates that girls in high school are outperforming boys in every subject that is offered within Kuwait’s education curriculum which includes; mathematics, biology, chemistry, physics, Arabic languages, and the English language (Chahine, 2015). The problem of poor performance has been attributed to the high degree of conservativeness amongst boys compared to girls. 


The Um Al Hayman School was constructed in the early 2000s to provide the members of the public including the Bedouin tribe an opportunity for accessing formal education. The school sits at the heart of Sabah Al-Salem. The building was constructed using hollow blocks to form a solid concrete structure. Adding to the great aesthetic of the school is an aluminum capping that covers the school from both the front and back. The building is also fitted with the standard size, 1.5 x 1.2 windows for each class and office.


Also, due to the ever-rising temperatures in Kuwait, the school has been equipped with ultra-modern air conditioners. The school has one main entrance gate which is located at the front of the school. The gate is has a width of 4.5 meters and a height of 3 meters. There are two emergency exits, one located at the back of the school compound and the other one adjacent to the main entrance. The emergency exits have a width of 2.5 meters and a height of 1.5 meters. Within the school compound, there are offices for teachers and other administrative staff’s offices. There are also special classes where ELT lessons are conducted. Generally, within the school compound, there are building categorized into three; buildings for elementary, primary, and high school classes. 


The main entrance to the high school building’s classes provides a passage towards a corridor that is 3.5 meters wide that stretches to the right and left wings of the building. The right-wing has four doors on either side which are offices for the subject teachers. The left-wing is a replica of the right-wing whereby it has six doors on either side. The doors are the offices for the heads of the departments and other senior administrators of the school which includes the school principal and the assistants. Also, facing the main entrance is a stairway that leads to the upper levels within the building. The first level has a corridor that is also 3.5 meters there are six doors in total within this level which leads to classrooms for all the high school students of Um Al Hayman School.  


This research will focus on the classroom used by the students in their second and third year in high school. These are the two senior-most classes of Um Al Hayman School. The classroom is located at the far end of the right-wing. The classroom is well-lit and painted in white making it conducive for learning activities. The size of this classroom is 12 x 9 x 3 meters and it is also fitted with an ultra-modern air conditioner to regulate the temperature. Also, the classroom has three 1.5 x 1.2 meters windows to ensure that the class has sufficient circulation of fresh air.


The classroom can accommodate thirty students for each English language lesson. In front of the door and middle of the class’s front next one of the windows is the teacher’s lectern. The class is arranged in a manner that students can sit in groups with each round table surrounded by five chairs for students. This sitting arrangement was adopted to enhance group work amongst students. The classroom has both electrical and internet connectivity to promote E-learning which is being advocated by the government. 


The classroom is also equipped with other ultra-modern electronics to promote digital learning. This equipment includes; a 3 x 2 smart board at the front of the class next to the teacher’s table, a modern short-throw projector hanging from the ceiling and four 50 inches smart LED TVs on each wall. Students often learn the English language through live English broadcast. All these smart electronic gadgets are controlled from a central point located next to the teacher’s lectern. 


English language lessons are conducted in three shifts as per the year of study since high school has students in three different years. Also, it is important to note that all the students are of the male gender as the constitution of Kuwait prohibits mixed-gender classes. The average age of the students is 18 years. All the students are Kuwaiti citizens coming from various ethnic groups including the Bedouin ethnic group, they are all Muslims and speakers of the native Arabic language. These students have been taught the English language since grade two. However, English proficiency amongst a significant number of these students is still below average as reflected in their TOEFL and IELTS scores.


The Arabic language is the official language that is used to teach students in Kuwait. However, the government also requires students to be taught the English language as one of the ways of ensuring that Kuwaiti students can compete internationally with students around the globe. Students are required to attend English language lessons four times a week with each lesson taking 45 minutes. This normal routine is only interrupted during exams or official breaks. The primary objective of these lessons is to ensure that students can converse in English with ease. To achieve this objective, English language lessons are based on topics they involve current affairs and other real-life examples within the Kuwaiti environment, culture, and other parts of the world. 


Students attending the Um Al Hayman School are predominantly Sunni Muslims. Similarly, the English class that this paper is focusing on all the students are Sunni Muslims coming from various tribes living in Sabah Al-Salem and its environs. Among these tribes is the Bedouin tribe. However, these tribes are unified by Islam religion and similar cultural practices as well as the Arabic language. This unity makes them identify themselves as the Kuwaiti nationals. The Arabic language is greatly adored by these students because it is not only their first language, but also the religion of Islam is taught using the Arabic language since the Holy Quran is written in it. Most of the students belong to the middle and upper-middle social classes and they perceive education is one of the tools that will shape their future. However, some students, particularly the Bedouin students who lacks the motivation of being taught any language other than Arabic holds that their language is part of their culture and it can be used to communicate elsewhere just like the English language. The Bedouin students seem to study the English language simply because is one of the curriculum requirements. 


The head of the school, the head of the English language department, and EFL/ESL instructors have been adequately trained and have traveled extensively both locally and internationally. This vast experience and training make them an authority in their fields. The head of the school is a 48 years old Kuwaiti named Mr. Adel Al-Ameeri. He holds a master’s degree from the United Kingdom. The opportunity to study in the U.K has made Mr. Adel acknowledge the importance of being able to proficiently converse in the English language. The exposure has contributed to making Mr. Adel an open-minded person who is accommodative to other cultures. The head of the English department is Mr. Hussain Al-Awadhi who is also a Kuwaiti in his early forties. There are sixteen English language teachers in Um Al Hayman School. Out of the sixteen teachers, four are citizens of Jordan.


Similarly, these teachers are unified by the Islam religion since all of them are Muslims. All the teachers are degree holders of applied linguistics from various reputable universities. Additionally, English language teachers share a common perception that culture and language are closely interrelated. They hold that language can be easily understood within a particular cultural context in which it is deeply anchored. However, Al Darwish, (2017) has established that in most instances the attitude of the English language in Arabian countries is also shaped by policies and structures within their places of work. Therefore, the performance of teachers is greatly influenced by structures, traditions, and policies of a particular school where they are teaching. 

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The Case Study

High school students of Um Al Hayman School are Kuwaiti nationals who prefer their native Arabic language over the English language. They are also strict adherence to their culture and staunch Muslims. All of these students are male and they wear “Thob”, the traditional Arabic dress. They are between the ages of 15 and 20 years. All the students at Um Al Hayman are Sunni Muslims even though they come from different tribes which comprise the Bedouin tribe. The students are of a mixed social class, there are those coming from the upper middle class, but a majority of the students are coming from the middle social class. Also, all the students live in, or within Sabah Al-Salem and its environs. The Bedouin students are the most ultra-conservative compared to other students. 


All the students joining Um Al Hayman, as provided for in the constitution of Kuwait and the policies guiding the education system, are required to complete a mandatory three years in high school whereby the English language is among the subjects being taught. It is stipulated in the school curriculum that students should attend four lessons of 45 minutes per week. This indicates that the government acknowledges benefits accompanied by the English language. This is the preparation of students for their future status as global citizens, employees, or be able to go for further studies in other countries such as the U.S or U.K. 


Students of Um Al Hayman School, just like students in other Kuwaiti schools are proud Muslims whose Arabic language is their first language and is also an aspect of the Islamic culture that they adore. However, the opinion and attitude towards the English language significantly vary amongst the high school students particularly those in their second and final year. Students coming from the upper-middle social class and other tribes are more tolerant of the English language when compared to the students from the Bedouin tribe. Even though students from the upper-middle class and these other tribes other than Bedouin do not have a vast exposure to the outside world, they are more cooperative and always motivated to learn the English language.


These students have fair scores in their English tests which also reflects their willingness to learn the language. However, high school students from the Bedouin tribe seem to lack interest in a foreign language. They do not participate fully in group activities during English language lessons and rarely attempt to answer questions in class. Since the Bedouin tribe students are conservative they perceive the English language as a direct threat to their culture and religion.


These students have been greatly influenced by radical and conservative Islamists in Kuwait who are resentful towards modernization and the western culture. One of these students is a 17-year-old gentleman named Adnan. He is always unwilling to cooperate with his group members during English language lessons as he does not want to get involved in anything that is associated with the West. There is also another student with a similar character named Nabil who is 18 years. These two students are just an example representing the other Bedouin students who possess the same attitude towards the English language. 


During the English language lessons, sometimes students are encouraged to actively participate in organized debates which are normally based on real-life topics. In one of the notable debates that took place on July 24, 2019, the teacher introduced a motion for the debate, “The Benefits of Being Able to Communicate in the English Language”. Each group member was required to contribute to this particular debate by expressing his views concerning the English language and how it is important in the modern world. However, this motion turned to one of the most hotly debated motion the elicited emotions particularly amongst the students from the Bedouin tribe. It was interesting to see Nabil and Adnan who are always reserved students actively participate arguing that the motion tended to portray the Arabic language as an inferior language.


The students who have motivated in mastering the English language argued that the English language is important is it promotes international collaboration between Kuwait and other developed countries to bring into the country new knowledge and technology. They also held that a good mastery of the English language will be of great benefit for those students who will get an opportunity to study in some of the best universities abroad such as Harvard and Yale in the U.S. These were some of the reasons that the students provided which motivates them to learn the English Language. Sentiments raised by these students motivated to learn the English are justifiable. It is true that the English language will enable them gain access to prestigious learning institutions in the world which are often found in the west. This language is the language of business, international communication, and also the English language is the language of the internet hence it will facilitate digital learning


On the other hand, Nabil and Adnan argued that the spread of English language in Kuwait is a threat to Islamic culture and religion. Simply because it will contribute to the introduction of other aspects of western culture such as mode of dressing and other mannerisms which are considered immoral. This were the main reasons cited by Bedouin students on why they have a negative attitude towards the English language. The concerned raised by Bedouin students cannot be overlooked as well. For instance, if the English language becomes deeply rooted in the Islam culture there is the possibility of the future generation in Kuwait possessing poor Arabic language skills and even speaking the English language as their first language. This will be a negative impact on the culture since one aspect of Islamic culture, language, will be lost. Consequently, culture is passed from one generation to another using language and there are some of the cultural aspects that cannot be transferred from one generation to another using a foreign language. Therefore, there is need to take into consideration all the concerns raised by both sides.


As the debated continued, the atmosphere of the class got more intense hence prompting the teacher to bring the debate to an end. First, students were urged to be tolerant of each other’s opinions. Secondly, the teacher explained on the importance teacher explained to the students the importance of being proficient in other international languages citing relevant verses of the Holy Quran and quoting the teachings of Prophet Mohammad (Peace be upon him). 


This section of the research paper seeks to propose an effective treatment of the above case study by drawing insights from the relevant literature. 

A.  Focused Review of Literature

The teaching of the English language has been ongoing in Kuwait since it was introduced in public schools by the British. However, the literature indicates that the English language is supported and opposed to almost equal measures. The English language was introduced in the Persian Gulf region that comprises Kuwait in the 1900s with the coming of the British who were carrying out their trade activities before turning out to become colonialists (Charise, 2007). However, the Kuwaiti government has been supporting all the initiatives directed towards promoting the English language. This indicates that the government recognizes the importance of this language particularly for international collaborations and knowledge acquisition. Therefore, it prompted the government to continue supporting the teaching of the English language in higher learning institutions, as well as secondary and primary schools.


Initially when the English language began to be taught in Islamic states it was focused on the local Islamic culture. The language was taught in a manner that reflected the values and beliefs of the Islamic Kuwaiti’s by avoiding the mention of any aspects of Western culture such as traditions, values, customs, habits, and other mannerisms such as relationships of the opposite or same sex, and drinking of alcohol (Mahboob, 2014). However, this approach was revised when the government sought to standardize the education system of Kuwait. There have been increased demands emanating from Kuwait and outside the country to make more changes in the manner in which the English language is taught in Kuwait. The pro-west campaigners have been advocating for a broad and secular based approach on the English language in a country that is predominantly conservative Islamic state (Elyas, 2008). Consequently, there is a growing concern amongst the elites of Kuwait which comprises business leaders and academicians who are ever questioning the abilities of Kuwait students in the global arena as they go for further studies or seek employment in multinational corporations (Ahmad, 2016). The government has been urged to ensure that the education curriculum promotes critical thinking amongst students and that it is aligned with the current trends of modernization (Tryzna, et al. 2017). It is out of this pressure that the government has cautiously introduced some aspects of the western language within the teaching of the English language. 


These education curriculum changes concerning the English language have not been received well by Islam culture and religion conservatives such as the Bedouin tribe. Despite the ministry of education’s emphasis that broadening of how the English language is taught is not a threat to Arabic language and Islamic culture, research indicates that time allocated to Islamic studies and Arabic language has been significantly reduced in favor of the English language. For instance, (Alazemi, 2017) found out that Islamic classes have been allocated three classes per week compared to four classes of English language. The application of a secular inclined approach towards the teaching of the English language has elicited fear amongst the Bedouin tribe and other conservative Islamists who hold that this will pave way for the immoral mannerisms associated with western cultures (Al-Brashi, 2003, cited in Mahboob, 2014). It is out of these concerns that some Sheikhs have been teaching young Muslims against the English language and anything related to the Western culture (Alazemi, 2017). Consequently, teaching and the general spread of the English language have been heavily questions in other Islamic states such as Saudi Arabia which conservative Islamists holding that an English language is an imperialistic tool that should be rooted out of the region (Elyas, & Badawood, 2016).


Muslim scholars are increasingly angered by what they are referring to the shift from Islam towards more English. These scholars hold that the shift being witnessed is detrimental to the Islamic culture and religion, particularly amongst the youth, were are perceived as critical actors who are supposed to carry the culture to the next generation (Islamia 2003). The English language is being linked to the propagation of secular beliefs that are embedded in the western culture while others perceive teaching of the English language as neo-colonialism (Mahboob, 2014). Therefore, Muslim scholars hold that Islamic ethics are at stake and eventually it will lead to the erosion of Islam in the region.


To counter the threat accompanied by more aggressive teaching of English, Muslim scholars have called for an Islamic approach of teaching English (Al Darwish, 2017). Education curriculum developers have been urged to design the curriculum in a way that makes the English language one of the tools used in spreading the Islam religion and the culture of Arabs rather than Western ideologies. Curriculum developers have been also urged to ensure that all aspects of the western culture contain in English language content being taught in school are eliminated. 


However, a section of Islamic scholars has been supporting the teaching of some aspects contained in the English language in the EFL syllabus. For instance TESOL Islamia, (2005) found out that there Islamic scholars who are encouraging more tolerance towards other cultures as a way of promoting peace in the society which is a core principle of the Islamic religion. These scholars have cited Sura Al Hujuraat and the Holy Quran to support their sentiments. They have quoted this verse, (Sura Al Hujuraat (49) Ayah (13).


The national identity of Kuwait is another critical aspect of concern amongst those against the spread of the English language. According to Cook (2017), identity formation processes is greatly influenced by all the discourses taking place in the community. It is on this light that other nations such as France and Belgium have greatly regulated the spread of the English language as a way of protecting their national identities and therefore Kuwait is urged to emulate these two countries. To ensure that Kuwait's national identity is adequately protected, the government should check the influence of foreign cultures despite the need to align Kuwait with the trends of globalization. 


B. The Application 

Based on research findings and the sociolinguistic perspective, to solve the conflict and challenges identified concerning the English language in the above case study, this study proposes a treatment approaches that can be adopted by the Um Al Hayman School to ensure that students from the Bedouin tribe changes their attitude towards the English language because it is a critical language that will provide a significant contribution in shaping their future.


Based on research findings and the sociolinguistic perspective, to solve the conflict and challenges identified concerning the English language in the above case study, this study proposes a treatment approaches that can be adopted by the Um Al Hayman School to ensure that students from the Bedouin tribe changes their attitude towards the English language because it is a critical language that will provide a significant contribution in shaping their future.

First, the school administration should work collaboratively with the local authorities in carrying out the English language sensitization in places inhabited by the Bedouin tribe. The campaign should target opinion leaders and religious leaders in the tribe to make them change their perception and stereotype towards the English language. A changed perception amongst these leaders will be vital in changing the attitudes of the students as well. This is because the literature shows that negative attitude towards the English language amongst Islamic students is perpetuated by religious leaders such as Sheikhs who have been found discouraging students from studying the English language due to the fear that the language will deter the spread of Islamic religion (Alazemi, 2017).


Therefore, attitude change towards the English language should start first with senior members of the Bedouin tribe. These leaders should be reminded of Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him)’s message whereby he encouraged accommodation of foreign languages and cultures. By being tolerant of other cultures will accelerate the spread of Islam to other parts of the world as these foreign languages are necessary tools of communication with the outside world. Consequently, the students will benefit more as it will enable them to gain access to education and career opportunities in other countries hence contributing to the improvement of their well-being.


Secondly, the administration of Um Al Hayman School should not solely rely on the tailoring of the ELT curriculum to change student’s attitudes. The administration should adopt its own strategies such as the provision of incentives specifically for Bedouin students who show improvements in the English language scores. These incentives will gradually change their attitudes as they will be motivated by these incentives. Also, the school administration should organize more symposiums of the English language as well as out of school trips to ensure that Bedouin students get sufficient exposure as it will increase the urge to explore the outside world which requires good knowledge of the English language.

Thirdly, the hostility of students towards foreign cultures should be addressed. Students should be taught the importance of being tolerant of other cultures particularly the western cultures as well as the importance of respecting each other’s opinions during debates. Respecting each other’s opinions will enable the Bedouin students to actively listen to the sentiments presented by students who want to learn the English language. It is out this active listening that the students from the Bedouin tribe might begin to acknowledge the importance of learning foreign languages such as the English language hence gradually changing their attitude towards the language.

Lastly, English language teachers in collaboration with Um Al Hayman School administration should promote foreign culture awareness and ensure that the English learning classroom is environment-friendly especially during debates. Also, it is evident that teachers play a big role in modeling how students think and behave, therefore, teachers should work on the attitudes of Bedouin students. This can be achieved by comparing and contrasting Islamic culture and the western cultures to pick beneficial cultural practices.


This study has elucidated on culture and language. This has attempted to illustrate how the concepts are interrelated and difficult to separate from each other. The paper has demonstrated the impact of culture on the spread of a language and how individuals in society rely on language to pass culture from one generation to another. However, what has come out is that culture often militates against the spread of a particular language. This has been expounded drawing insights from Kuwait’s Um Al Hayman School whereby Bedouin students have been hostile towards the spread of the English language.


But also it is important to acknowledge that the students are justifiable to some extent. This is because the spread of a foreign language can be equated with the spread of a foreign culture hence threatening to erode the cultural heritage of the local people. Therefore, a balance should be found to ensure that the local community is tolerant of foreign culture and local culture is cushioned from erosion. Some of the measures that can be adopted include a curriculum and teaching approach of the English language that is sensitive to the Islamic culture.